Nowadays, software architecture and agile methodologies seem to be inextricably inter-twined. Everytime I have a chance for geek-talk with a bunch of software architects, there is always someone that will throw in some of the softer issues that deal with how we run our projects, how do we estimate, something about big design up front no-no’s, YAGNI, DRY and other buzzwords. Since architecture is full of metaphorical stacks of many kinds, I thought it might be useful to invent of an agile stack. Humor me, and let’s call it the A-* stack 🙂
I think there are several layers in A-*. I have no idea what is stacked on top of what, but Here is my A-* stack as I think of it right now, and we’ll try and refactor it later to gain deeper insight into the layers of responsibility and order that must evolve out of the chaos.
- People Layer: This layer is responsible for establishing a team ethos. It is vital to creating a common work ethic in the team, shared values and principles. It is the lowest common denominator. In high conflict teams with high discord, things fall apart easily. Under these circumstances, you need to drop to philosophical introspection of your team values such as honesty, respect, reasons for existing on the project/or building the solution.
- Project Management Layer: Managing a project founded on agile practices, even those that use agile practices partially, is no easy task. There is a dedicated layer of responsibility that keeps track of project velocity, prioritization of stories, facilitating feedback and managing change. Sure, we embrace change in agile projects but it still needs to be managed within the prioritized list of stories and other constraints of the project. This is different from traditional PMBOK style project management and deserves its own layer of responsibility.
- Development Layer: This layer embraces the technical practices of the software developers. It includes niceties like continuous integration, test driven development, code refactoring, single code repositories that guarentee one version of the truth. This is, perhaps, the one layer that is best understood and have tangible actions at the code face.
- Architecture and Design Layer: This layer is more than it’s really cool acronyms like YAGNI, DRY and BDUF. The focus is on gaining deeper insight into the problem domain. It very likely shares a gray and fuzzy area with the Development Layer and that’s ok. It really doesn’t matter that we have spillage into the development layer or vis versa. As long as we focus on gaining maximum understanding of the problem domain and modelling the solution as simply as as is possible.
- Run-Time Layer: This is an oee one that I’ve dwelled on for a while. Sometimes the run-time environment really gets in the way and obstructs fluidity and rhythm in the development and architecture layer. It may well be the least agile of all layers in A-*. So, choose wisely … if you can. Let me explain a little further by example. The Ruby on Rails folk have made many screen casts that show how you can change code and you can just reload the page and, magically, the change is visible. Now compare that to someone writing EJB’s. Write, package, undeploy, deploy … it’s just painful, even if you are POJO+TDD inclined. The EJB container will bite you, eventually. So, in some respects the RoR runtime is more agile than the EJB runtime. (Aside: I think the only agile runtime in Java world is OSGi because it supports dynamic loading and unloading of classes and multiple versions classes in the same namespace. Now that’s agile!)
- Environment Layer: The place where the team work is an equal contributor to agility. From how your workpace is layed out to desk configurations in an open plan office space, it is significant. Audible and visual communication is important and this may overlap ever so slightly with the people layer. I think the environment has a dedicated layer of responsibility in A-*.
- Toolbox Layer: The tools you use can help you become more agile. I find that a flip chart, white board and multi-colored markers keeps me fluid and helps me progress rapidly, especially when I am working in the Architecture and Design Layer. We all have our special favorites that include the full blown IDE with our special key bindings, code diff tools, and even specialised items like shared whiteboards. I know of one team that has a Skype bot that acts as their JIRA interface – chatting to thet Skype bot allows them to update statuses and query JIRA. What tool ever keeps you agile has a place in this layer.
Perhaps, you have some other thoughts about what goes into A-* and what should be taken out. Maybe you have some real world insights that go beyond my meagre learning experiences. Drop me a note … I really would like to know how your A-* stacks up.
3 thoughts on “Introducing the A-* Stack”
However, is it a stack at all? And are those things really layers? When talking to my colleague Andreas Brink (http://blog.andreasbrink.se/) earlier today about this word layer (in normal architecture discussions), he used the word “concerns” which I agree with him works much better.
It is very seldom clear layers or stacks (the use of the words “horizontal and vertical layers” kind of suggests that there is some kind of problem and probably less so in the A*-stack?
A bit spooky to have the discussion about the word today and then finding your blog post about it in the rss-reader a few hours later though… 🙂
Nice observation, Niclas.
Stack and Layers are nice editorial/poetic liberties :-). It just has a nicer ring than “A-* concerns”
But the term “concern” is intriguing because agile cuts across the entire software development process. So, it may be useful to think about it as such.
But, if the problem domain is “agile software development”, and we had to model that domain, I’ll hazard the guess that the “layers” I talk about may be modules (or contexts) with dependencies between them. It will be interesting to see if there is a single kernel that is shared amongst all of the other parts.
It’s a weird way to look at agile but the self introspection to create a domain model for understanding “agile” may yet have some useful side effects benifits.
User Experience is another A-* element in the stack. The UI itself could be in many forms – Web, WAP, SMS, Voice UI, Desktop. And you would need to talk to specialists who would define how end users from different geographies using different devices could/should experience your product/service.